In the early 1980s many hotels in the United States adopted quality assurance as a business strategy. By the late 1980s independent and chain hotels realized that total quality management (TQM) was a more powerful process and they began utilizing many of its components. For over 10 years, hotels have flirted with a variety of tools, processes, and theories to improve service to the guest. One of the problems with studying the design of quality systems is that there is no single, best definition of TQM. It has been called a philosophy and system designed to encourage positive organizational deve1opment.
It has also been called a process that entails work in 10 areas, from creating a culture of quality to building a system for rewards and reognitionM.o re specifically, TQM has been defined as a commitment to the continuous improvement of customer sati~faction. Certain commonalities can be found, however, in the various definitions of TQM.4 First of all, a systematic approach must be taken for TQM to be successful. The culture of the hotel system must allow employees to make decisions about their jobs. Continuously improving customer satisfaction with products and services is another key element of a quality system. Clearly, management’s responsibility is to employees as well as customers. That responsibility includes training employees to use the appropriate TQ tools and measuring customer satisfaction so that decisions are based on reliable data. And at the heart and soul of quality is an understanding of the processes that are designed to create employee and customer satisfaction.
But there have been no empirical studies of what hotels are actually accomplishing in terms of specific TQM principles. Several researchers and groups have studied manufacturing and service industries to identify the best practices of companies that operate according to the quality philosophy. Benchmarking, as this process is get this file Here